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  • Received: Sep. 7, 2018

    Accepted: Nov. 27, 2018

    Posted: Feb. 19, 2019

    Published Online: Feb. 19, 2019

    The Author Email: Anjin Liu (

    DOI: 10.1364/PRJ.7.000121

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    Anjin Liu, Philip Wolf, James A. Lott, Dieter Bimberg. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for data communication and sensing[J]. Photonics Research, 2019, 7(2): 02000121

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Photonics Research, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 02000121 (2019)

Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for data communication and sensing

Anjin Liu1,2,3,*, Philip Wolf4, James A. Lott4, and Dieter Bimberg4,5

Author Affiliations

  • 1Laboratory of Solid-State Optoelectronics Information Technology, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China
  • 2State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China
  • 3Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • 4Institute of Solid State Physics and Center of Nanophotonics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany
  • 5Bimberg Chinese-German Center for Green Photonics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences at CIOMP, Changchun 130033, China


Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are the ideal optical sources for data communication and sensing. In data communication, large data rates combined with excellent energy efficiency and temperature stability have been achieved based on advanced device design and modulation formats. VCSELs are also promising sources for photonic integrated circuits due to their small footprint and low power consumption. Also, VCSELs are commonly used for a wide variety of applications in the consumer electronics market. These applications range from laser mice to three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging, including various 3D movement detections, such as gesture recognition or face recognition. Novel VCSEL types will include metastructures, exhibiting additional unique properties, of largest importance for next-generation data communication, sensing, and photonic integrated circuits.

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