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  • References

[1] H. Kubbinga. A tribute to Max Planck. Europhys. News, 49, 27-33(2018).

[2] The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded 113 times to 213 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2019. A full listing of laureates, as well as transcripts of the Presentation Speeches which provide important contextual information, can be seen at .

[3] A. Einsten. Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt. Ann. Phys., 322, 132-148(1905).

[4] A. Einstein. Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung. Phys. Z., 18, 121-128(1917).

[5] C. H.Townes, How the Laser Happened: Adventures of a Scientist, Oxford University Press (1999)

[6] The Shawanga Lodge Conference on Quantum Electronics-Resonance Phenomena 14-16 September 1959, Bloomingburg, New York. See also Physics Today12(5), 72 (1959).

[7] T. H.Maiman, The Laser Inventor: Memoirs of Theodore H. Maiman, Springer (2018)

[8] Nomination Archive. Nobel Media AB 2020.

[9] “A historical perspective on the maser and laser,” presented by Charles Townes, University of California, Berkeley, USA, and Tony Heinz, Columbia Univ., USA, The James P Gordon Symposium during CLEO 2014 in San Jose, California, USA.

[10] J. Hecht, J. Hecht. Beam: The Race to Make the Laser. Optics and Photonics News, 16, 24-29(2005).

[11] D. F. Nelson, R. J. Collins, W. Kaiser. Bell Labs and the ruby laser. Phys. Today, 63, 40-45(2010).

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