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  • Received: Jun. 14, 2019

    Accepted: Aug. 22, 2019

    Posted: Dec. 3, 2019

    Published Online: Dec. 3, 2019

    The Author Email: Jianguo Liu (, Xingjun Wang (

    DOI: 10.3788/COL201917.120604

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    Zhike Zhang, Jinye Li, Zeping Zhao, Jianguo Liu, Xingjun Wang. Package-level passive equalization technology enabling DML-based 112 Gbps/λ PAM4 transmission[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2019, 17(12): 120604

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Chinese Optics Letters, Vol. 17, Issue 12, 120604 (2019)

Package-level passive equalization technology enabling DML-based 112 Gbps/λ PAM4 transmission

Zhike Zhang1,2, Jinye Li3, Zeping Zhao3, Jianguo Liu3,*, and Xingjun Wang1,2,**

Author Affiliations

  • 1State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • 2Frontiers Science Center for Nano-optoelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • 3State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China


We demonstrate a package-level passive equalization technology in which the wire-bonding-induced resonance effect is used to compensate for the limited gain strength within the Nyquist frequency. The corresponding gain strength under various inductance and capacitance combinations could be quantitatively determined using a numerical simulation. With the increase in the Nyquist frequency, the capacitance shows a greater effect on the gain strength than the inductance. Therefore, the parasitic capacitance should be decreased to realize the desired gain strength at a higher Nyquist frequency. With this equalization technology, gain strength of 5.8 dB is obtained at 22 GHz, which can compensate for the limited bandwidth for the 112 Gbps pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) signal. The experimental results show that 112 Gbps/λ PAM4 transmission based on a directly modulated laser (DML) module can be realized with a bit error rate of 1 × 10 3 at a received optical power of 3 dBm.

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