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  • Received: Oct. 18, 2017

    Accepted: Jan. 12, 2018

    Posted: Jan. 17, 2019

    Published Online: Jul. 13, 2018

    The Author Email: Sihua Yang (, Pengfei Zhang (

    DOI: 10.3788/COL201816.031702

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    Mingjun Xu, Peng Lei, Jianqin Feng, Fangfang Liu, Sihua Yang, Pengfei Zhang. Photoacoustic characteristics of lipid-rich plaques under ultra-low temperature and formaldehyde treatment[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2018, 16(3): 031702

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Chinese Optics Letters, Vol. 16, Issue 3, 031702 (2018)

Photoacoustic characteristics of lipid-rich plaques under ultra-low temperature and formaldehyde treatment 

Mingjun Xu1, Peng Lei2, Jianqin Feng3, Fangfang Liu1, Sihua Yang2,*, and Pengfei Zhang1,**

Author Affiliations

  • 1Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
  • 2MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • 3Department of Cardiology, The Juye Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Heze 274900, China


Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has been used to characterize the spatial and quantitative features of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques with high sensitivity and specificity. In this Letter, we first validate that the ultra-low temperature and formaldehyde treatment have no effect on photoacoustic characteristics of the artery samples. Comparative experiments between the PAI and histological results demonstrate that the ultra-low temperature or formaldehyde treatment has few effects on the PAI of the lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques; the lipid relative concentration and the lipid percentage by PAI hold high correlation with histology.