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  • Received: Sep. 3, 2019

    Accepted: Nov. 1, 2019

    Posted: Jan. 6, 2020

    Published Online: Jan. 7, 2020

    The Author Email: Hongliang Liu (, Pengfei Wu (

    DOI: 10.3788/COL202018.021901

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    Quanxin Yang, Xin Zhang, Hongliang Liu, Xuping Wang, Yingying Ren, Shan He, Xiaojin Li, Pengfei Wu. Dynamic relaxation process of a 3D super crystal structure in a Cu:KTN crystal[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2020, 18(2): 021901

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Chinese Optics Letters, Vol. 18, Issue 2, 021901 (2020)

Dynamic relaxation process of a 3D super crystal structure in a Cu:KTN crystal 

Quanxin Yang1, Xin Zhang2, Hongliang Liu1,*, Xuping Wang3, Yingying Ren4, Shan He1, Xiaojin Li1, and Pengfei Wu1,**

Author Affiliations

  • 1Tianjin Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Sensor and Sensing Network Technology, Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
  • 2Hubei Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053, China
  • 3Advanced Materials Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250014, China
  • 4Shandong Provincial Engineering and Technical Center of Light Manipulations & Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optics and Photonic Device, School of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250358, China


In this Letter, we report the existence and relaxation properties of a critical phenomenon on called a 3D super crystal that emerges at T = TC ? 3.5°C, that is, in the proximity of the Curie temperature of a Cu:KTN sample. The dynamics processes of a 3D super crystal manifest in its formation containing polarized nanometric regions and/or polarized clusters. However, with strong coupling and interaction of microcomponents, the characteristic relaxation time measured by dynamic light scattering demonstrates a fully new relaxation mechanism with a much longer relaxation time. As the relaxation mechanism of a relaxator is so-far undetermined, this research provides a novel perspective. These results can help structure a fundamental theory of ferroelectric relaxation.


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