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Accepted: Nov. 1, 2019

Posted: Jan. 6, 2020

Published Online: Jan. 7, 2020

The Author Email: Hongliang Liu (drliuhl@nankai.edu.cn), Pengfei Wu (pwu@nankai.edu.cn)

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Quanxin Yang, Xin Zhang, Hongliang Liu, Xuping Wang, Yingying Ren, Shan He, Xiaojin Li, Pengfei Wu. Dynamic relaxation process of a 3D super crystal structure in a Cu:KTN crystal[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2020, 18(2): 021901

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Fig. 1. Variation of relative permittivity against temperature and measurement frequency. Measurement is accomplished by a Tonghui 2830 LCR (inductance, capacitance, resistance) meter with 1Vpp sinusoidal signals at different frequencies. Thermal hysteresis loops are shown because of the crystal’s relaxor ferroelectric. As shown, data at decreasing temperatures are smoother, and as frequency increases, the whole intensity decreases without a change of curve shapes.

Fig. 3. (a)–(c) Diagram of the 3D dynamic super crystal and the X-ray-diffraction-like phenomenon. (a) A diagram of a dynamic 3D super crystal structure full-filling the whole column. Due to 1.52 μm period that is very similar to the wavelength of the incident light beam (532 nm), the diffraction pattern is convenient to observe and analyze. (b) Strong diffraction caused by the dynamic structure. The built-in 1D order (periodical refractive index variety) is also shown. (c) Picture of diffraction pattern captured behind the sample. Spots pointed out by blue circles correspond to the $1st$-order Bragg diffraction caused by the intrinsic 1D grating, and the spot pointed out by red circle corresponds to the diffraction phenomena caused by domain walls. The latter is utilized in the DLS experiment. (d)–(f) Microscopic mechanism during dynamic structure formation. (d) PNRs with orientation vertical to the interface of different layers form. (e) PNRs with orientation vertical to the interface have strong spontaneous polarization, and those with orientation horizontal to the interface have little during dynamic relaxation process. (f) The final dynamic structure. Red lines represent 90° domain walls.