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  • Received: Aug. 15, 2019

    Accepted: Sep. 10, 2019

    Posted: Oct. 15, 2019

    Published Online: Oct. 15, 2019

    The Author Email: Jing Xu (jxu-optics@zju.edu.cn)

    DOI: 10.3788/COL201917.100007

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    Jing Xu. Underwater wireless optical communication: why, what, and how? [Invited][J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2019, 17(10): 100007

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Typical application scenarios of UWOC.

Fig. 1. Typical application scenarios of UWOC.

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Intensity distribution of a laser beam after transmitting through (a) 30 m and (b) 60 m in clean sea water.

Fig. 2. Intensity distribution of a laser beam after transmitting through (a) 30 m and (b) 60 m in clean sea water.

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Experimental setup of the proposed RGB LD-based WDM UWOC system. Inset: (a) the transmitter module, (b) the receiver module, and (c) the water tank[18].

Fig. 3. Experimental setup of the proposed RGB LD-based WDM UWOC system. Inset: (a) the transmitter module, (b) the receiver module, and (c) the water tank[18].

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Schematic diagram of the working principle of a DM-DPSSL[39].

Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the working principle of a DM-DPSSL[39].

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Possible application scenario of the proposed underwater Fi-Wi system[40].

Fig. 5. Possible application scenario of the proposed underwater Fi-Wi system[40].

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Leaky POF-based distributed UWOC system[41]. Inset: a “ZJU” symbol generated by a leaky POF originally used for decorative applications.

Fig. 6. Leaky POF-based distributed UWOC system[41]. Inset: a “ZJU” symbol generated by a leaky POF originally used for decorative applications.

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(a) Experiment setup of the 46 m UWOC system using an MPPC receiver[52]. (b) The 46 m PVC tube filled with tap water to simulate a 46 m underwater channel.

Fig. 7. (a) Experiment setup of the 46 m UWOC system using an MPPC receiver[52]. (b) The 46 m PVC tube filled with tap water to simulate a 46 m underwater channel.

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Transmitting optical power for different L-PPM signals[52]; stimulated/spontaneous: laser worked under stimulated/spontaneous emission state.

Fig. 8. Transmitting optical power for different L-PPM signals[52]; stimulated/spontaneous: laser worked under stimulated/spontaneous emission state.

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Histogram of incident photon number in each pulse slot for different L-PPMs[53].

Fig. 9. Histogram of incident photon number in each pulse slot for different L-PPMs[53].

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(a) Waveform and (b) spectrum of the captured 32-QAM OFDM signal with an ROP of −19.9 dBm[55].

Fig. 10. (a) Waveform and (b) spectrum of the captured 32-QAM OFDM signal with an ROP of −19.9 dBm[55].

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Constellations after 2 m underwater transmission: (a) 256-QAM with bit loading, (b) 16-QAM with bit loading, (c) 256-QAM without bit loading[58].

Fig. 11. Constellations after 2 m underwater transmission: (a) 256-QAM with bit loading, (b) 16-QAM with bit loading, (c) 256-QAM without bit loading[58].

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Experimental setup for the proposed MIMO-OFDM-based UWOC system. The inset shows the schematic arrangement of transmitters (TXs) and receivers (RXs)[42].

Fig. 12. Experimental setup for the proposed MIMO-OFDM-based UWOC system. The inset shows the schematic arrangement of transmitters (TXs) and receivers (RXs)[42].

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Experimental setup for verifying information leakage using an MPPC placed aside the light beam[76].

Fig. 13. Experimental setup for verifying information leakage using an MPPC placed aside the light beam[76].

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Experimental setup of the air–water laser communication scheme[82]. Inset: (a) the transmitter module, (b) the receiver module, and (c) the water tank.

Fig. 14. Experimental setup of the air–water laser communication scheme[82]. Inset: (a) the transmitter module, (b) the receiver module, and (c) the water tank.

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(a) Wave/current basin (70 m in length, 40 m in width, and 1.5 m in depth). (b) The research vessel named Zijingang (29.8 m in length with a gross tonnage of 100 tons).

Fig. 15. (a) Wave/current basin (70 m in length, 40 m in width, and 1.5 m in depth). (b) The research vessel named Zijingang (29.8 m in length with a gross tonnage of 100 tons).

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