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  • Received: Sep. 3, 2020

    Accepted: Sep. 30, 2020

    Posted: Oct. 2, 2020

    Published Online: Nov. 19, 2020

    The Author Email: Chun-Sing Lee (apcslee@cityu.edu.hk), Lidai Wang (lidawang@cityu.edu.hk)

    DOI: 10.1364/PRJ.409378

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    Jiangbo Chen, Yachao Zhang, Xiaozhen Li, Jingyi Zhu, Dengfeng Li, Shengliang Li, Chun-Sing Lee, Lidai Wang. Confocal visible/NIR photoacoustic microscopy of tumors with structural, functional, and nanoprobe contrasts[J]. Photonics Research, 2020, 8(12): 12001875

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Photonics Research, Vol. 8, Issue 12, 12001875 (2020)

Confocal visible/NIR photoacoustic microscopy of tumors with structural, functional, and nanoprobe contrasts

Jiangbo Chen1,†, Yachao Zhang1,†, Xiaozhen Li2,†, Jingyi Zhu1, Dengfeng Li1, Shengliang Li2, Chun-Sing Lee2,4,*, and Lidai Wang1,3,5,*

Author Affiliations

  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 999077 Hong Kong SAR, China
  • 2Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 999077 Hong Kong SAR, China
  • 3City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China
  • 4e-mail: apcslee@cityu.edu.hk
  • 5e-mail: lidawang@cityu.edu.hk

Abstract

Distinguishing early-stage tumors from normal tissues is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. We report fiber-based confocal visible/near-infrared (NIR) optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy that can image tumor microvasculature, oxygen saturation, and nanoprobes in a single scanning. We develop a cost-efficient single laser source that provides 532, 558, and 1064 nm pulsed light with sub-microseconds wavelength switching time. Via dual-fiber illumination, we can focus the three beams to the same point. The optical and acoustic foci are confocally aligned to optimize the sensitivity. The visible and NIR wavelengths enable simultaneous tumor imaging with three different contrast modes. Results show obvious angiogenesis, significantly elevated oxygen saturation, and accumulated nanoparticles in the tumor regions, which offer comprehensive information to detect the tumor. This approach also allows us to identify feeding and draining vessels of the tumor and thus to determine local oxygen extraction fraction. In the tumor region, the oxygen extraction fraction significantly decreases along with tumor growth, which can also assist in tumor detection and staging. Fiber-based confocal visible/NIR photoacoustic microscopy offers a new tool for early detection of cancer.

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