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  • Received: Jan. 10, 2020

    Accepted: Apr. 2, 2020

    Posted: Apr. 2, 2020

    Published Online: May. 13, 2020

    The Author Email: Yiyang Luo (

    DOI: 10.1364/PRJ.387438

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    Yiyang Luo, Ran Xia, Perry Ping Shum, Wenjun Ni, Yusong Liu, Huy Quoc Lam, Qizhen Sun, Xiahui Tang, Luming Zhao. Real-time dynamics of soliton triplets in fiber lasers[J]. Photonics Research, 2020, 8(6): 06000884

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Photonics Research, Vol. 8, Issue 6, 06000884 (2020)

Real-time dynamics of soliton triplets in fiber lasers

Yiyang Luo1,2,†,*, Ran Xia1,2,3,†, Perry Ping Shum1,2, Wenjun Ni1,2, Yusong Liu1,2,3, Huy Quoc Lam4, Qizhen Sun3, Xiahui Tang3, and Luming Zhao3

Author Affiliations

  • 1CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, UMI 3288, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553, Singapore
  • 2School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
  • 3School of Optical and Electronic Information & Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
  • 4Temasek Laboratories @ NTU, Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553, Singapore


The evolution of soliton molecules emphasizes the complex soliton dynamics akin to matter molecules. Beyond the simplest soliton molecule—a soliton pair constituted by two bound pulses—soliton molecules with more constituents have more degrees of freedom because of the temporal pulse separations and relative phases. Here we detailedly characterize the transient dynamics of soliton triplets in fiber lasers by using the dispersive Fourier transform measurement. A particular form of leading, central, and tailing pulses is constructed to shed new light on more intriguing scenarios and fuel the molecular analogy. Especially the vibrating dynamics of the central and tailing pulses are captured near the regime of equally spaced soliton triplets, which is reminiscent of the recurrent timing jitters within multi-pulse structures. Further insights enable access into a universal form of unequally spaced soliton triplets interpreted as 2+1 soliton molecules. Different binding strengths of intramolecular and intermolecular bonds are validated with respect to the diverse internal motions involved in this soliton triplet molecule. All these findings unveil the transient dynamics with more degrees of freedom as well as highlight the possible application for all-optical bit storage.

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