Acta Physica Sinica, Vol. 69, Issue 7, 077303-1 (2020)
Majorana quasi-particles and superconductor-semiconductor hybrid nanowires
Yu Chun-Lin1 and Zhang Hao2,3,*
- 1China Greatwall Quantum Laboratory, Changsha 410006, China
- 2Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
- 3Beijing Academy of Quantum Information Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
Majorana fermions are known for being their own anti-particles. As the condensed matter version of Majorana fermions, Majorana quasiparticles have drawn extensive interests for being an ideal candidate for building a fault-tolerant quantum computer, due to their non-abelian statistics. This paper provides an introduction for beginners to the rapidly growing research field of Majorana quasiparticles focusing on one dimensional semiconductor nanowire-superconductor hybrid system. We aim to help readers to quickly understand Majorana quasiparticles and its formation mechanism and the latest experimental results. We first review the theoretical model of the Majorana quasiparticles with its historical background. We then discuss the Kitaev chain and analyze its key elements. We also introduce typical Majorana devices and their corresponding measurement methods. Furthermore, we discuss the observation of robust signatures of Majorana zero modes in recent experiments, with particular attention to tunneling conductance measurements. Finally, we give prospects on future experiments for advancing one dimensional semiconductor nanowire-superconductor hybrid system.
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