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  • Received: Oct. 28, 2019

    Accepted: Mar. 1, 2020

    Posted: Apr. 14, 2020

    Published Online: Apr. 15, 2020

    The Author Email: Shixiang Xu (hzhang@szu.edu.cn), Han Zhang (shxxu@szu.edu.cn)

    DOI: 10.3788/COL202018.041405

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    Hualong Chen, Xiantao Jiang, Shixiang Xu, Han Zhang. Recent progress in multi-wavelength fiber lasers: principles, status, and challenges[J]. Chinese Optics Letters, 2020, 18(4): 041405

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  • Table 1. Summary of the Multi-Wavelength Pulsed Lasers Based on a Real SA

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    Table 1. Summary of the Multi-Wavelength Pulsed Lasers Based on a Real SA

    Type of 2D MaterialsWork ModeIntegration MethodsWavelength Range (nm)Number of WavelengthsRepetition Rate (MHz)Pulse Duration (ps)Ref.
    GrapheneMLPLD on taper1529–1535.448.0348.8[188]
    GrapheneMLOptical deposition1061.8, 1068.821.781410[108]
    GrapheneMLOptical deposition on fiber taper1031.43, 1034.94, 1038.4330.5574.6[189]
    Graphene oxideMLGO-PVA film1056.5, 1062.3, 1069.5314.2340[80]
    Graphene oxideMLGO-PVA film1572.93, 1588.37223.5412,200[132]
    TI:Bi2Se3MLBi2Se3-PVA film1567.2, 1568, 1568.7, 1569.548.8322[67]
    TI:Bi2Te3MLOptical deposition on fiber end1548, 1550, 155238.95∼30[212]
    TMDs:WS2MLOptical deposition on fiber taper1568.55, 156922.1411[222]
    TMDs:WS2MLPLD on taper1558.54, 1565.9928.830.6[224]
    BPMLBP film1572.2, 1557.7, 1558.231.6516.99[233]
    BPMLBP-PVA film1533, 1558220.80.7[234]
    CNT+FBGMLCNT-PVA film1540, 1550, 156036.186.3, 6.7, 5.9[48]
  • Table 2. Summary of the MWFL Based on the Filter Effect in the Cavity

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    Table 2. Summary of the MWFL Based on the Filter Effect in the Cavity

    Working PrincipleWavelength Range (nm)Number of WavelengthsSpacing (nm)3 dB Linewidth (nm)Power Fluctuation (dB)Ref.Remark
    MZI1558.6–1559.220.60.02<0.43[26]Wavelength tunable
    MZI1545–1556290.4/0.8<1[27]Spacing tunable
    MZI1534–1534.430.2<0.05<0.912[53]Wavelength switchable
    SMS1560.8–1563.923.1<0.136<0.46[30]Wavelength tunable
    SMS1894.17–1904.213∼5<0.04<2[57]
    FBG1569.38–1569.62∼0.2[59]Wavelength tunable and switchable
    FBG1559.80, 1560.65, 1561.2530.07[61]
    NPR1550–1575280.80.04<0.2[73]Spacing tunable
    NALM∼1967–1981420.33<1[75]
    FWM1562–1605500.8<0.05[76]
    FWM∼1555–1561.590.80.05<1.2[84]Spacing tunable
    FWM1555.68–1561.4170.950.18[18]
    SBS∼1561–15721111[86]Spacing tunable
    Interaction of SRS, SBS, RS∼1555–15701950.16[34]Wavelength tunable
  • Table 3. Summary of the Multi-Wavelength Mode-Locked Lasers Based on NPR or NALM

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    Table 3. Summary of the Multi-Wavelength Mode-Locked Lasers Based on NPR or NALM

    StructureWavelength Range (nm)Number of WavelengthsRepetition Rate (MHz)Pulse Width (ps)Ref.Remark
    NPR∼1040–1074336[31]Wavelength tunable
    NPR1852/1862, 1863/1874, and 1874/188622.68[78]Wavelength switchable
    NPR+ PS-LPFBG1031.48–1056.3232.5460[119]Wavelength tunable
    NPR1902.5–1917.3314.71.36[121]
    NPR1571.48/1584.15210.239.4/8.6[122]Spacing tunable
    NPR∼1560–158577.445.68[123]Wavelength tunable and switchable
    NPR1865–188732.68[124]Wavelength switchable
    NALM1570–1604201.4345490[125]
    NALM1935–195346.13700[126]Wavelength tunable
    MZI modulation1545.52–1561.2851000014[29]Wavelength switchable
  • Table 4. Summary of the Dual-Cavity Two-Color Mode-Locked Lasers

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    Table 4. Summary of the Dual-Cavity Two-Color Mode-Locked Lasers

    TypeOperation ModeCentral Wavelength (nm)Repetition Rate (MHz)Pulse DurationRef.
    Cross-absorption modulationSynchronized ML1067.1/1535.4813.086.1/2.1 ps[257]
    Cross-absorption modulationSynchronized Q-switched1480/18500.024.9 μs[259]
    XPMSynchronized ML1040/15402913/0.2 ps[258]
    XPM + cross-absorption modulationSynchronized ML1558.5/193820.50.915/1.57 ps[197]
    Gained Q-switchedSynchronized Q-switched1046/15460.01175.3/4.6 μs[260]
    Gained Q-switchedSynchronized Q-switched2073.05/2954.70.1080.85/0.99 μs[261]

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