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  • Received: Jul. 11, 2020

    Accepted: Oct. 19, 2020

    Posted: Nov. 19, 2020

    Published Online: Nov. 19, 2020

    The Author Email: Rajaeipour Pouya (, Banerjee Kaustubh (, Dorn Alex (, Zappe Hans (, Ataman Çağlar (

    DOI: 10.1117/1.AP.2.6.066005

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    Pouya Rajaeipour, Kaustubh Banerjee, Alex Dorn, Hans Zappe, Çağlar Ataman. Cascading optofluidic phase modulators for performance enhancement in refractive adaptive optics[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2020, 2(6): 066005

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Advanced Photonics, Vol. 2, Issue 6, 066005 (2020)

Cascading optofluidic phase modulators for performance enhancement in refractive adaptive optics

Pouya Rajaeipour*, Kaustubh Banerjee, Alex Dorn, Hans Zappe, and Çağlar Ataman

Author Affiliations

  • University of Freiburg, Gisela and Erwin Sick Laboratory for Micro-Optics, Department of Microsystems Engineering, Freiburg, Germany


We discuss the implementation and performance of an adaptive optics (AO) system that uses two cascaded deformable phase plates (DPPs), which are transparent optofluidic phase modulators, mimicking the common woofer/tweeter-type astronomical AO systems. One of the DPPs has 25 electrodes forming a keystone pattern best suited for the correction of low-order and radially symmetric modes; the second device has 37 hexagonally packed electrodes better suited for high-order correction. We also present simulation results and experimental validation for a new open-loop control strategy enabling simultaneous control of both DPPs, which ensures optimum correction for both large-amplitude low-order, and complex combinations of low- and high-order aberrations. The resulting system can reproduce Zernike modes up to the sixth radial order with stroke and fidelity up to twice better than what is attainable with either of the DPPs individually. The performance of the new AO configuration is also verified in a custom-developed fluorescence microscope with sensorless aberration correction.


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