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  • Received: Jan. 30, 2020

    Accepted: May. 14, 2020

    Posted: Jun. 3, 2020

    Published Online: Jun. 3, 2020

    The Author Email: Jiang Shan (, Guan Meiling (, Wu Jiamin (, Fang Guocheng (, Xu Xinzhu (, Jin Dayong (, Liu Zhen (, Shi Kebin (, Bai Fan (, Wang Shu (, Xi Peng (

    DOI: 10.1117/1.AP.2.3.036005

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    Shan Jiang, Meiling Guan, Jiamin Wu, Guocheng Fang, Xinzhu Xu, Dayong Jin, Zhen Liu, Kebin Shi, Fan Bai, Shu Wang, Peng Xi. Frequency-domain diagonal extension imaging[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2020, 2(3): 036005

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Advanced Photonics, Vol. 2, Issue 3, 036005 (2020)

Frequency-domain diagonal extension imaging

Shan Jiang1,2,3, Meiling Guan1, Jiamin Wu4, Guocheng Fang5, Xinzhu Xu1, Dayong Jin2,5, Zhen Liu5, Kebin Shi6, Fan Bai7, Shu Wang8, and Peng Xi1,2,*

Author Affiliations

  • 1Peking University, College of Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing, China
  • 2Southern University of Science and Technology China, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
  • 3Beijing Institute of Collaborative Innovation (BICI), Beijing, China
  • 4Tsinghua University, Department of Automation, Beijing, China
  • 5University of Technology Sydney, Faculty of Science, Institute for Biomedical Materials & Devices (IBMD), Ultimo, Australia
  • 6Peking University, School of Physics, Beijing, China
  • 7Peking University, School of Life Sciences, Biodynamic Optical Imaging Center (BIOPIC), Beijing, China
  • 8Peking University People’s Hospital Breast Center, Beijing, China


The pixel size of a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera plays a major role in the image resolution, and the square pixels are attributed to the physical anisotropy of the sampling frequency. We synthesize the high sampling frequency directions from multiple frames acquired with different angles to enhance the resolution by 1.4 × over conventional CCD orthogonal sampling. To directly demonstrate the improvement of frequency-domain diagonal extension (FDDE) microscopy, lens-free microscopy is used, as its resolution is dominantly determined by the pixel size. We demonstrate the resolution enhancement with a mouse skin histological specimen and a clinical blood smear sample. Further, FDDE is extended to lens-based photography with an ISO 12233 resolution target. This method paves a new way for enhancing the image resolution for a variety of imaging techniques in which the resolution is primarily limited by the sampling pixel size, for example, microscopy, photography, and spectroscopy.


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