Programmable metasurfaces enable real-time control of electromagnetic waves in a digital coding manner, which are suitable for implementing time-domain metasurfaces with strong harmonic manipulation capabilities. However, the time-domain metasurfaces are usually realized by adopting the wired electrical control method, which is effective and robust, but there are still some limitations. Here, we propose a light-controllable time-domain digital coding metasurface consisting of a full-polarization dynamic metasurface and a high-speed photoelectric detection circuit, from which the microwave reflection spectra are manipulated by time-varying light signals with periodic phase modulations. As demonstrated, the light-controllable time-domain digital coding metasurface is illuminated by the light signals with two designed time-coding sequences. The measured results show that the metasurface can well generate symmetrical harmonics and white-noise-like spectra, respectively, under such cases in the reflected wave. The proposed light-controllable time-varying metasurface offers a planar interface to tailor and link microwaves with lights in the time domain, which could promote the development of photoelectric hybrid metasurfaces and related multiphysics applications..
Nonlinear frequency conversion of structured beams has been of great interest recently. We present an intracavity second harmonic generation (SHG) of laser beams in transverse mode locking (TML) states with a specially designed sandwich such as a microchip laser. The intracavity nonlinear frequency conversion process of a laser beam in a TML state to its second harmonic is theoretically and experimentally investigated, considering different relative phase and weight parameters between the basic modes in the TML beam. Comparison between the far-field SHG beam patterns of fundamental frequency transverse modes in coherently locked and incoherently superposed states demonstrates that the SHG of TML beams can carry more information. Various rarely observed far-field SHG beam patterns are obtained, and they are consistent with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. With the obtained SHG beams, the characteristics of the structured fundamental frequency beams can also be conversely investigated or predicted. This work may have important applications in optical 3D printing, optical trapping of particles, and free-space optical communication areas..