• Advanced Photonics
  • Vol. 3, Issue 4, 044002 (2021)
Yan Jin1, Lin Zhou1、2、*, Jie Liang1, and Jia Zhu1、*
Author Affiliations
  • 1Nanjing University, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, Nanjing, China
  • 2Nanjing University, Key Laboratory of Intelligent Optical Sensing and Manipulation, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China
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    Overview of electrochemistry enabled dynamic plasmonics: (a)–(c) approaches to realize dynamic plasmonics and (d)–(f) applications of dynamic plasmonics. (a) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 32, Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. (b), (d) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 56, Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society. (c), (e) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 57, Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement of Science. (f) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 58, Copyright 2018, National Academy of Sciences.
    Fig. 1. Overview of electrochemistry enabled dynamic plasmonics: (a)–(c) approaches to realize dynamic plasmonics and (d)–(f) applications of dynamic plasmonics. (a) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 32, Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. (b), (d) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 56, Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society. (c), (e) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 57, Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement of Science. (f) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 58, Copyright 2018, National Academy of Sciences.
    Structural transformation for dynamic plasmonics. (a) Schematic of Au/Ag nanodome arrays. (b) Simulation of two-dimensional reflection spectra as a function of Ag shell thickness. (c) Measured reflection spectra of the device after different electrodeposition times. (d) Schematic of the morphology evolution during lithium deposition at different applied currents: lithium particle growth and disorder lithium dendrite formation. (e) Simulation reflectance of two lithium morphologies: shifts of reflectance dip and suppressed reflectance intensity. (f) The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of lithium particles. (g) The SEM image of lithium dendrites. (h) Schematic of selective lithium deposition transferring metal–insulator–metal to the semi-infinite metallic grating. (i) The corresponding calculated reflection spectra switching between MPR and SPP. (a)–(c) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 32, Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. (d)–(g) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 58, Copyright 2018, National Academy of Sciences. (h), (i) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 59, Copyright 2020, Wiley-VCH GmbH.
    Fig. 2. Structural transformation for dynamic plasmonics. (a) Schematic of Au/Ag nanodome arrays. (b) Simulation of two-dimensional reflection spectra as a function of Ag shell thickness. (c) Measured reflection spectra of the device after different electrodeposition times. (d) Schematic of the morphology evolution during lithium deposition at different applied currents: lithium particle growth and disorder lithium dendrite formation. (e) Simulation reflectance of two lithium morphologies: shifts of reflectance dip and suppressed reflectance intensity. (f) The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of lithium particles. (g) The SEM image of lithium dendrites. (h) Schematic of selective lithium deposition transferring metal–insulator–metal to the semi-infinite metallic grating. (i) The corresponding calculated reflection spectra switching between MPR and SPP. (a)–(c) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 32, Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. (d)–(g) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 58, Copyright 2018, National Academy of Sciences. (h), (i) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 59, Copyright 2020, Wiley-VCH GmbH.
    Carrier-density modulation for dynamic plasmonics. (a) The SEM image of the colloidal silver particles. Inset is the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image. (b) Absorption spectra of the silver solution at the open circuit potential of (a) +0.15 V, (b) −0.6 V, and (c) +0.15 V versus Ag/AgCl. (c) The position of the plasmon peak and number of electrons transferred of the colloidal silver surface as a function of potential. TEM images of (d) AZO and (e) ITO nanocrystals. The transmittance of (f) AZO and (g) ITO nanocrystals before (orange, dashed) and after 20,000 cycles (purple, solid) with voltage modulation. (h) The TEM image of 5% Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals. (i) In situ spectroelectrochemistry of 5% Nb-doped TiO2 films with four distinct optical states, with different transmittance of visible (yellow arrow) and infrared (red arrow) light. (a)–(c) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 81, Copyright 1997, American Chemical Society. (d)–(g) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 82, Copyright 2013, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. (h), (i) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 56, Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.
    Fig. 3. Carrier-density modulation for dynamic plasmonics. (a) The SEM image of the colloidal silver particles. Inset is the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image. (b) Absorption spectra of the silver solution at the open circuit potential of (a) +0.15  V, (b) 0.6  V, and (c) +0.15  V versus Ag/AgCl. (c) The position of the plasmon peak and number of electrons transferred of the colloidal silver surface as a function of potential. TEM images of (d) AZO and (e) ITO nanocrystals. The transmittance of (f) AZO and (g) ITO nanocrystals before (orange, dashed) and after 20,000 cycles (purple, solid) with voltage modulation. (h) The TEM image of 5% Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals. (i) In situ spectroelectrochemistry of 5% Nb-doped TiO2 films with four distinct optical states, with different transmittance of visible (yellow arrow) and infrared (red arrow) light. (a)–(c) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 81, Copyright 1997, American Chemical Society. (d)–(g) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 82, Copyright 2013, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. (h), (i) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 56, Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.
    Electrochemically active surrounding-media manipulation for dynamic plasmonics. (a)–(d) Schematic, experimentally obtained reflectance spectra and FDTD simulated reflectance spectra of plasmochromic nanocavities based on a WO3 insulator layer with lithium insertion. (e) Schematic of a PANI-coated Au nanoparticle on a metallic Au mirror and redox reaction of PANI (PANI0, fully reduced; PANI1+, half oxidized; PANI2+, fully oxidized). (f) Scattering spectra and inset SEM image of a single PANI-coated Au nanoparticle (c0, PANI0; c2+, PANI2+). (g) Reversible switching of coupled plasmon resonance wavelength versus the applied voltage. (a)–(d) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 37, Copyright 2020, American Chemical Society. (e)–(g) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 57, Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Fig. 4. Electrochemically active surrounding-media manipulation for dynamic plasmonics. (a)–(d) Schematic, experimentally obtained reflectance spectra and FDTD simulated reflectance spectra of plasmochromic nanocavities based on a WO3 insulator layer with lithium insertion. (e) Schematic of a PANI-coated Au nanoparticle on a metallic Au mirror and redox reaction of PANI (PANI0, fully reduced; PANI1+, half oxidized; PANI2+, fully oxidized). (f) Scattering spectra and inset SEM image of a single PANI-coated Au nanoparticle (c0, PANI0; c2+, PANI2+). (g) Reversible switching of coupled plasmon resonance wavelength versus the applied voltage. (a)–(d) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 37, Copyright 2020, American Chemical Society. (e)–(g) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 57, Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Applications of dynamic plasmonics: structural color displays. (a) Schematic of PANI-coated Au nanoparticles-based displays integrated with an electrochemical cell for scalable color generation. (b) Dark field images of Au nanoparticles with 20-, 40-, and 60-nm diameters during PANI redox reactions. (c) Color gamut (CIE 1931 chromaticity) of PANI-coated Au nanoparticles with 20-, 40-, and 60-nm diameters during PANI redox. (d) Device photo of PANI-coated Au nanoparticles before and after 3 months. Switching times of various plasmonic nanomaterials versus (e) the wavelength and (f) pixel areas. (a)–(f) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 57, Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Fig. 5. Applications of dynamic plasmonics: structural color displays. (a) Schematic of PANI-coated Au nanoparticles-based displays integrated with an electrochemical cell for scalable color generation. (b) Dark field images of Au nanoparticles with 20-, 40-, and 60-nm diameters during PANI redox reactions. (c) Color gamut (CIE 1931 chromaticity) of PANI-coated Au nanoparticles with 20-, 40-, and 60-nm diameters during PANI redox. (d) Device photo of PANI-coated Au nanoparticles before and after 3 months. Switching times of various plasmonic nanomaterials versus (e) the wavelength and (f) pixel areas. (a)–(f) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 57, Copyright 2019, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Applications of dynamic plasmonics: chemical sensors. (a)–(d) Electrocatalysis reaction sensors: (a) schematic of dark-field microscopy integrated with an electrochemical workstation for chemical reaction sensors; (b) schematic of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction mechanism of H2O2 on a single gold nanoparticle surface; (c) scattering spectra of a single gold nanoparticle (∼40 nm×65 nm) during the cyclic scanning; (d) scattering peak shift of 40 nm×65 nm (I, III) and 40 nm×84 nm (II, IV) single gold nanoparticle with (I, II) and without (III, IV) 1 mM H2O2 in 0.10 M KNO3 solution under the applied potential from −0.10 to 1.00 V. (e)–(j) Battery sensors: (e)–(h) in operando reflectance during lithium metal (e), (g) deposition and (f), (h) stripping at two applied current densities: (e), (f) 0.03 mA and (g), (h) 1 mA. In situ lithium dendrite detection with (i) applied current and (j) in situ reflectance. (a)–(d) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 110, Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society. (e)–(j) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 58, Copyright 2018, National Academy of Sciences.
    Fig. 6. Applications of dynamic plasmonics: chemical sensors. (a)–(d) Electrocatalysis reaction sensors: (a) schematic of dark-field microscopy integrated with an electrochemical workstation for chemical reaction sensors; (b) schematic of the electrocatalytic oxidation reaction mechanism of H2O2 on a single gold nanoparticle surface; (c) scattering spectra of a single gold nanoparticle (40  nm×65  nm) during the cyclic scanning; (d) scattering peak shift of 40  nm×65  nm (I, III) and 40  nm×84  nm (II, IV) single gold nanoparticle with (I, II) and without (III, IV) 1 mM H2O2 in 0.10 M KNO3 solution under the applied potential from 0.10 to 1.00 V. (e)–(j) Battery sensors: (e)–(h) in operando reflectance during lithium metal (e), (g) deposition and (f), (h) stripping at two applied current densities: (e), (f) 0.03 mA and (g), (h) 1 mA. In situ lithium dendrite detection with (i) applied current and (j) in situ reflectance. (a)–(d) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 110, Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society. (e)–(j) Reproduced with permission from Ref. 58, Copyright 2018, National Academy of Sciences.
    MaterialWO3102Cu-Ag34Cu-Bi, NiO35ITO82AZO82
    ApproachIon insertionElectrochemical depositionElectrochemical deposition and ion insertionCapacitive chargingCapacitive charging
    MechanismPolaronic absorptionStructural transformationStructural transformationCarrier-density changeCarrier-density change
    Device area25  cm2100  cm24  cm24  cm2
    Spectral rangeVIS400 to 1000 nmVISNIRNIR
    ΔT97.7% (633 nm)75% (600 nm)65% (600 nm)25% (solar NIR)40% (solar NIR)
    Switch speed coloration/bleaching6 s/2.7 s<3  min60 s3.06 s/6.8 s 0.1 M LiCO4/PC1 s/1.8 s 0.1 M LiCO4/PC
    Coloration efficiency (cm2C1) (for contrast ratio at a specific wavelength)118.3 (for 97.7% at 633 nm)90 (for 60% at 600 nm)400 (for 60% at 1800 nm)450 (for 57% at 2000 nm)
    Cycling3005500400020,000, 45% capacity decay20,000, 11% capacity decay
    Table 1. Summary of smart windows of various approaches.
    StructureAu/Ag core shell nanodome32Au-WO3-Au nanohole cavities37PANI-coated Au nanoparticle on Au mirror57LC on Al nanowell26
    ApproachElectrochemical depositionLi ion insertion into WO3Redox reaction of polymerLCs orientation change
    MechanismStructural transformationSurrounding refractive index changeSurrounding refractive index changeSurrounding refractive index change
    Spectral range/tunability220-nm shift64-nm shift>100-nm shift95-nm shift
    Reflectivity60%35%>50%50% to 80%
    Speed<1  s4 s30 msMillisecond-scale
    Resolution5×104  pixels/inch>109  pixels/inchHigh
    Angle independenceYes20 deg
    Stability, retention100 cycles, 88%>3 months
    Energy consumption5.6  mWcm20.3  mWcm2
    Table 2. Summary of structural color displays of various approaches.
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    Yan Jin, Lin Zhou, Jie Liang, Jia Zhu. Electrochemically driven dynamic plasmonics[J]. Advanced Photonics, 2021, 3(4): 044002
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    Category: Reviews
    Received: Mar. 25, 2021
    Accepted: Jun. 7, 2021
    Published Online: Jul. 1, 2021
    The Author Email: Zhou Lin (linzhou@nju.edu.cn), Zhu Jia (jiazhu@nju.edu.cn)