Contents
2021
Volume: 9 Issue 10
28 Article(s)

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Research Articles
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications
Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution for nonstandalone networks | Editors' Pick
Guan-Jie Fan-Yuan, Feng-Yu Lu, Shuang Wang, Zhen-Qiang Yin, De-Yong He, Zheng Zhou, Jun Teng, Wei Chen, Guang-Can Guo, and Zheng-Fu Han
Untrusted node networks initially implemented by measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol are a crucial step on the roadmap of the quantum Internet. Considering extensive QKD implementations of trusted node networks, a workable upgrading tactic of existing networks toward MDI networks needs to be explicit. Here, referring to the nonstandalone (NSA) network of 5G, we propose an NSA-MDI scheme as an evolutionary selection for existing phase-encoding BB84 networks. Our solution can upgrade the BB84 networks and terminals that employ various phase-encoding schemes to immediately support MDI without hardware changes. This cost-effective upgrade effectively promotes the deployment of MDI networks as a step of untrusted node networks while taking full advantage of existing networks. In addition, the diversified demands on security and bandwidth are satisfied, and network survivability is improved.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 06, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001881 (2021)
Optical Devices
Very large group delay in VHF band using coupled high temperature superconducting resonators
Tianning Zheng, Bin Wei, Fuchuan Lei, and Bisong Cao
Storing a very high frequency (VHF) band (30–300 MHz) electromagnetic wave has many potential applications, such as phase modulation, buffering, and radio frequency memory. It can be effectively achieved by applying coupled resonator-based electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) due to its slow light effect. However, the wavelength in the VHF band is too long to design resonators, and the group delay is limited by the high resistive loss of metal. The practical application of EIT in the VHF band is still a big challenge. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate EIT response in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microwave circuit with coupled-resonator-induced transparency. The chip size of the HTS circuit is only 34 mm×20 mm with a very low transparency frequency of 198.55 MHz. In addition, we implement very large group delay higher than 12.3 μs and 16.2 μs with working temperatures of 65 K and 50 K separately, which is much longer than the previous reported works on slow wave. The fabricated circuit is planar with working temperature about 65 K, and thus can be easily integrated into other microwave devices under the cryogenic conditions provided by a commercial portable Stirling cryocooler. Our proposed method paves a way for studying EIT in the microwave region due to the high quality factor of the HTS resonator, which has great potential use for radio-frequency memory in the future.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 07, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001892 (2021)
Lasers and Laser Optics
Buildup dynamics of multiple solitons in spatiotemporal mode-locked fiber lasers
Kewei Liu, Xiaosheng Xiao, Yihang Ding, Hongyan Peng, Dongdong Lv, and Changxi Yang
Spatiotemporal mode locking is a nonlinear process of multimode soliton self-organization. Here the real-time buildup dynamics of the multiple solitons in a spatiotemporal mode-locked multimode fiber laser are investigated, assisted by the time-stretch technique. We find that the buildup processes are transverse mode dependent, especially during the stages of relaxation oscillation and Q-switching prior to multiple soliton formation. Furthermore, we observe that the transverse modal composition of these generated pulses among the multiple solitons can be different from each other, indicating the spatiotemporal structure of the multiple soliton. A simplified theoretical model based on pulse energy evolution is put forward to interpret the role of 3D saturable absorber on spatiotemporal structures of spatiotemporal mode-locking multiple solitons. Our work has presented the spatiotemporal nonlinear dynamics in multimode fiber lasers, which are novel to those inside the single transverse mode fiber lasers.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 07, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001898 (2021)
Optoelectronics
Multiple-quantum-well-induced unipolar carrier transport multiplication in AlGaN solar-blind ultraviolet photodiode
Long Guo, Ke Jiang, Xiaojuan Sun, Zihui Zhang, Jianwei Ben, Yuping Jia, Yong Wang, and Dabing Li
AlGaN solar-blind ultraviolet (SBUV) detectors have potential application in fire monitoring, corona discharge monitoring, or biological imaging. With the promotion of application requirements, there is an urgent demand for developing a high-performance vertical detector that can work at low bias or even zero bias. In this work, we have introduced a photoconductive gain mechanism into a vertical AlGaN SBUV detector and successfully realized it in a p-i-n photodiode via inserting a multiple-quantum-well (MQW) into the depletion region. The MQW plays the role of trapping holes and increasing carrier lifetime due to its strong hole confinement effect and quantum confinement Stark effect. Hence, the electrons can go through the detector multiple times, inducing unipolar carrier transport multiplication. Experimentally, an AlGaN SBUV detector with a zero-bias peak responsivity of about 0.425 A/W at 233 nm is achieved, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 226%, indicating the existence of internal current gain. When compared with the device without MQW structure, the gain is estimated to be about 103 in magnitude. The investigation provides an alternative and effective approach to obtain high current gain in vertical AlGaN SBUV detectors at zero bias.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 07, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001907 (2021)
Optical and Photonic Materials
Ultrastable Gd3+ doped CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 nanocrystals blue glass for regulated and low thresholds amplified spontaneous emission
Qingyun He, Enrou Mei, Ze Wang, Xiaojuan Liang, Suqin Chen, and Weidong Xiang
Here, Gd-doped CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 nanocrystals (NCs) in borosilicate glass matrix (B2O3-SiO2-ZnO) were prepared by melting quenching and in-situ crystallization. The optical performance of CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 NCs glasses under different heat-treatment temperatures and the content of Gd3+ were analyzed in detail. After CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 NCs glass is doped with Gd3+ ions, the photoluminescence intensity increases and the synthesized Gd-doped CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 NCs glasses have excellent water stability and thermal cycling performance. In addition, the influence of Gd-doped concentrations and heat-treatment temperatures on the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) thresholds of CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 NCs glasses was studied, and the Gd-doped CsPbCl1.5Br1.5 NCs glasses achieve controllable ASE thresholds at room temperature. The ASE threshold can be as low as 0.39 mJ/cm2. This work offers a neoteric reference for the research in the application of metal ion-doped perovskite NCs and a new idea for the realization of controllable and low ASE thresholds on perovskite NCs.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 09, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001916 (2021)
Imaging Systems, Microscopy, and Displays
Single-shot 3D tracking based on polarization multiplexed Fourier-phase camera
Jiajie Teng, Chengyang Hu, Honghao Huang, Minghua Chen, Sigang Yang, and Hongwei Chen
For moving objects, 3D mapping and tracking has found important applications in the 3D reconstruction for vision odometry or simultaneous localization and mapping. This paper presents a novel camera architecture to locate the fast-moving objects in four-dimensional (4D) space (x, y, z, t) through a single-shot image. Our 3D tracking system records two orthogonal fields-of-view (FoVs) with different polarization states on one polarization sensor. An optical spatial modulator is applied to build up temporal Fourier-phase coding channels, and the integration is performed in the corresponding CMOS pixels during the exposure time. With the 8 bit grayscale modulation, each coding channel can achieve 256 times temporal resolution improvement. A fast single-shot 3D tracking system with 0.78 ms temporal resolution in 200 ms exposure is experimentally demonstrated. Furthermore, it provides a new image format, Fourier-phase map, which has a compact data volume. The latent spatio-temporal information in one 2D image can be efficiently reconstructed at relatively low computation cost through the straightforward phase matching algorithm. Cooperated with scene-driven exposure as well as reasonable Fourier-phase prediction, one could acquire 4D data (x, y, z, t) of the moving objects, segment 3D motion based on temporal cues, and track targets in a complicated environment.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 09, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001924 (2021)
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications
Rectangular single-mode polymer optical fiber for femtosecond laser inscription of FBGs
Jitendra Narayan Dash, Xin Cheng, Dinusha Serandi Gunawardena, and Hwa-Yaw Tam
In this study, a novel rectangular polymer single-mode optical fiber for femtosecond (fs) laser-inscribed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is proposed and demonstrated. The cylindrical geometry of the widely used circular fiber elongates the fs laser beam along the fiber axis, resulting in reduced laser intensity and requiring index-matching oil immersion during FBG inscription. However, the flat geometry and negligible surface roughness of the featured fiber significantly diminish this lensing distortion and eliminate the need for oil immersion, thereby resulting in optimal focusing of the laser beam, permitting direct and efficient inscription of FBGs within the optical fiber. The core and cladding of the rectangular fiber were fabricated using two different grades of ZEONEX, a cyclo olefin polymer, which have slightly different refractive indices. The similar glass transition temperature for core and cladding simplifies the fiber drawing process, and a rectangular single-mode optical fiber with dimensions of 213 μm×160 μm and core diameter of 9.4 μm was fabricated using an in-house fiber drawing facility. A second harmonic (520 nm) fs laser beam was used to successfully inscribe a 2-mm-long FBG in the rectangular fiber within a few seconds with a point-by-point technique. The inscription of a single FBG leads to the excitation of higher order FBG peaks at 866.8 and 1511.3 nm, corresponding to widely used wavelength bands in fiber optic sensing. The strain and temperature sensitivities of the FBG were measured to be 7.31 nm/%ε (0.731pm/με) and 10 pm/°C, and 12.95 nm/%ε (1.29 pm/με) and 15 pm/°C at 866.8 nm and 1511.3 nm, respectively.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 09, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001931 (2021)
Nanophotonics and Photonic Crystals
Terahertz wavefront shaping with multi-channel polarization conversion based on all-dielectric metasurface | On the Cover
Jie Li, Chenglong Zheng, Jitao Li, Guocui Wang, Jingyu Liu, Zhen Yue, Xuanruo Hao, Yue Yang, Fuyu Li, Tingting Tang, Yating Zhang, Yan Zhang, and Jianquan Yao
Polarization manipulation of electromagnetic wave or polarization multiplexed beam shaping based on metasurfaces has been reported in various frequency bands. However, it is difficult to shape the beam with multi-channel polarization conversion in a single metasurface. Here, we propose a new method for terahertz wavefront shaping with multi-channel polarization conversion via all-silicon metasurface, which is based on the linear shape birefringence effect in spatially interleaved anisotropic meta-atoms. By superimposing the eigen- and non-eigen-polarization responses of the two kinds of meta-atoms, we demonstrate the possibility for high-efficiency evolution of several typical polarization states with two independent channels for linearly polarized waves. The measured polarization conversion efficiency is higher than 70% in the range of 0.9–1.3 THz, with a peak value of 89.2% at 1.1 THz. In addition, when more other polarization states are incident, combined with the integration of sub-arrays, we can get more channels for both polarization conversion and beam shaping. Simulated and experimental results verify the feasibility of this method. The proposed method provides a new idea for the design of terahertz multi-functional metadevices.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 09, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001939 (2021)
Integrated Optics
Hybrid integrated low-noise linear chirp frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser source based on self-injection to an external cavity
Liwei Tang, Hongxiang Jia, Shuai Shao, Sigang Yang, Hongwei Chen, and Minghua Chen
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 15, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001948 (2021)
Imaging Systems, Microscopy, and Displays
Quantized Fourier ptychography with binary images from SPAD cameras
Xi Yang, Pavan Chandra Konda, Shiqi Xu, Liheng Bian, and Roarke Horstmeyer
Recently developed single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array cameras provide single-photon sensitivity and picosecond-scale time gating for time-of-flight measurements, with applications in LIDAR and fluorescence lifetime imaging. As compared to standard image sensors, SPAD arrays typically return binary intensity measurements with photon time-of-arrival information from fewer pixels. Here, we study the feasibility of implementing Fourier ptychography (FP), a synthetic aperture imaging technique, with SPAD array cameras to reconstruct an image with higher resolution and larger dynamic range from acquired binary intensity measurements. Toward achieving this goal, we present (1) an improved FP reconstruction algorithm that accounts for discretization and limited bit depth of the detected light intensity by image sensors, and (2) an illumination angle-dependent source brightness adaptation strategy, which is sample-specific. Together, these provide a high-quality amplitude and phase object reconstruction, not only from binary SPAD array intensity measurements, but also from alternative low-dynamic-range images, as demonstrated by our simulations and proof-of-concept experiments.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 15, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001958 (2021)
Ultrafast Optics
Floating terahertz metamaterials with extremely large refractive index sensitivities
Harry Miyosi Silalahi, Yin-Pei Chen, Yi-Hong Shih, Yu-Shao Chen, Xin-Yu Lin, Jih-Hsin Liu, and Chia-Yi Huang
In the diagnosis of severe contagious diseases such as Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and COVID-19, there is an urgent need for protein sensors with large refractive index sensitivities. Current terahertz metamaterials cannot be used to develop such protein sensors due to their low refractive index sensitivities. A simple method is proposed that is compatible with all geometrical structures of terahertz metamaterials to increase their refractive index sensitivities. This method uses patterned photoresist to float the split-ring resonators (SRRs) of a terahertz metamaterial at a height of 30 μm from its substrate that is deposited with complementary SRRs. The floating terahertz metamaterial has an extremely large refractive index sensitivity of 532 GHz/RIU because its near field is not distributed over the substrate and also because the complementary SRRs confine the field above the substrate. The floating terahertz metamaterial senses bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the protein binding of BSA and anti-BSA as BSA, and anti-BSA solutions with low concentrations that are smaller than 0.150 μmol/L are sequentially dropped onto it. The floating terahertz metamaterial is a great achievement to develop protein sensors with extremely large refractive index sensitivities, and has the potential to sense dangerous viruses.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 15, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001970 (2021)
Optoelectronics
Highly efficient transparent quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic double electron-transport layers
Nan Zhang, Xiangwei Qu, Quan Lyu, Kai Wang, and Xiao Wei Sun
Herein, we report the fabrication of high-performance transparent quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (Tr-QLEDs) with ZnO/ZnMgO inorganic double electron-transport layers (ETLs). The ETLs effectively suppress the excess electron injection and facilitate charge balance in the Tr-QLEDs. The thick ETLs as buffer layers can also withstand the plasma-induced damage during the indium tin oxide sputtering. These factors collectively contribute to the development of Tr-QLEDs with improved performance. As a result, our Tr-QLEDs with double ETLs exhibited a high transmittance of 82% at 550 nm and a record external quantum efficiency of 11.8%, which is 1.27 times higher than that of the devices with pure ZnO ETL. These results indicate that the developed ZnO/ZnMgO inorganic double ETLs could offer promising solutions for realizing high-efficiency Tr-QLEDs for next-generation display devices.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 15, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001979 (2021)
Optical Devices
Direct laser writing spiral Sagnac waveguide for ultrahigh magnetic field sensing
Dengwei Zhang, Zhihang Zhang, Heming Wei, Jianrong Qiu, and Sridhar Krishnaswamy
A high-birefringence spiral Sagnac waveguide (SSW) device fabricated via direct laser writing (DLW) using a two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique is proposed, designed, and experimentally demonstrated as an ultrahigh magnetic field sensor. The sensor comprises a Y-style tapered waveguide and an SSW containing two microfluidic channels. The SSW has a total length of ∼2.4 mm and a spiral radius of ∼200 μm. Due to the asymmetric structure, the SSW has a high birefringence of 0.016, which can be designed as a magnetic field sensor, as a magnetic fluid can be filled into the microfluidic channel changing the guiding mode and the birefringence and consequently leading to a change in phase of the interferometer when the applied magnetic field changes. The experimental results show that the proposed photonic device has a sensitivity to magnetic fields as high as 0.48 nm/Oe within a range from 10 to 100 Oe. The proposed device is very stable and easy to fabricate, and it can therefore be used for weak magnetic field detection.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 15, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001984 (2021)
Quantum Optics
Characterization and stability measurement of deployed multicore fibers for quantum applications
Davide Bacco, Nicola Biagi, Ilaria Vagniluca, Tetsuya Hayashi, Antonio Mecozzi, Cristian Antonelli, Leif K. Oxenløwe, and Alessandro Zavatta
Multicore fibers are expected to be a game-changer in the coming decades thanks to their intrinsic properties, allowing a larger transmission bandwidth and a lower footprint in optical communications. In addition, multicore fibers have recently been explored for quantum communication, attesting to their uniqueness in transporting high-dimensional quantum states. However, investigations and experiments reported in literature have been carried out in research laboratories, typically making use of short fiber links in controlled environments. Thus, the possibility of using long-distance multicore fibers for quantum applications is still to be proven. We characterize here for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, in terms of phase stability, multiple strands of a four-core multicore fiber installed underground in the city of L’Aquila, with an overall fiber length up to about 25 km. In this preliminary study, we investigate the possibility of using such an infrastructure to implement quantum-enhanced schemes, such as high-dimensional quantum key distribution, quantum-based environmental sensors, and more, in general, quantum communication protocols.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 15, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001992 (2021)
Narrowband photonic quantum entanglement with counterpropagating domain engineering | Editors' Pick
Yi-Chen Liu, Dong-Jie Guo, Ran Yang, Chang-Wei Sun, Jia-Chen Duan, Yan-Xiao Gong, Zhenda Xie, and Shi-Ning Zhu
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 15, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10001998 (2021)
Integrated Optics
Proposal and demonstration of a controllable Q factor in directly coupled microring resonators for optical buffering applications
Ying Zhang, Qiang Liu, Chenyang Mei, Desheng Zeng, Qingzhong Huang, and Xinliang Zhang
Optical resonators with controllable Q factors are key components in many areas of optical physics and engineering. We propose and investigate a Q-factor controllable system composed of two directly coupled microring resonators, one of which is tunable and coupled to dual waveguides. By shifting the resonance of the controllable microring, the Q factor of the system as well as the other microring changes significantly. We have demonstrated wide-range controllable Q factors based on this structure in silicon-on-insulator, for example. The influences of spectral detuning and coupling strength between two resonators on the variation of Q factors are studied in detail experimentally. Then, we explore its applications in optical buffering. Tunable fast-to-slow/slow-to-fast light has been carried out by switching the system between the high-Q state and low-Q state. Moreover, optical pulse capture and release are also achievable using this structure with dynamic tuning, and the photon storage properties are investigated. The proposed Q-factor tunable system is simple, flexible, and realizable in various integrated photonic platforms, allowing for potential applications in on-chip optical communications and quantum information processing.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 17, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002006 (2021)
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications
Quantitative in situ measurement of optical force along a strand of cleaved silica optical fiber induced by the light guided therewithin
Mikko Partanen, Hyeonwoo Lee, and Kyunghwan Oh
We propose an optomechanical system to quantify the net force on a strand of cleaved silica optical fiber in situ as the laser light is being guided through it. Four strands of the fiber were bonded to both sides of a macroscopic oscillator, whose movements were accurately monitored by a Michelson interferometer. The laser light was propagating with variable optical powers and frequency modulations. Experimentally, we discovered that the driving force for the oscillator consisted of not only the optical force of the light exiting from the cleaved facets but also the tension along the fiber induced by the light guided therewithin. The net driving force was determined only by the optical power, refractive index of the fiber, and the speed of light, which pinpoints its fundamental origin.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 17, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002016 (2021)
Physical Optics
Resonance and topological singularity near and beyond zero frequency for waves: model, theory, and effects
Langlang Xiong, Yu Zhang, and Xunya Jiang
Research interest in resonance and topology for systems at near-zero frequency, whose wavelength could be 2 orders larger than the scale of resonators is very rare, since the trivial effective-medium theory is generally thought to be correct in this regime. Also, the complex frequency regime is generally thought to be irrelevant to the topological properties of Hermitian systems. In this work, we find the general conditions to realize near-zero frequency resonance for a resonator and theoretically propose two kinds of realizations of such resonators, which are confirmed by numerical methods. The photonic crystals with such a resonator as the unit cell present rich topological characteristics at the near-zero frequency regime. The topological singularity that corresponds to the resonant frequency of the unit cell can be pushed to zero frequency at the bottom of the first band by tuning a certain parameter to a critical value. Surprisingly, we find that, when the parameter is tuned over the critical value, the singularity has disappeared in the first band and is pushed into the imaginary frequency regime, but now the topology of the first band and gap is still nontrivial, which is demonstrated by the existence of the topological edge state in the first gap, the negative sign of imaginary part of the surface impedance, and the symmetry property of Wannier functions. So, we are forced to accept that the singularity in the imaginary frequency regime can influence the topology in the real frequency regime. So, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we find that the singularity in the pure imaginary regime can still cause the observable topological effects on the real frequency regime, even for the Hermitian systems. Now, zero frequency acts as a novel exceptional point for Hermitian systems and the topology of the first band and first gap could be quite different from other bands and gaps, since they are intrinsically connected with zero frequency. Other new phenomena are also observed when the singularity is at the near-zero frequency regimes (real or imaginary), e.g., the cubic relationship between reflection coefficient and the frequency, the robust wide-bandwidth high transmission at very low frequency, etc. Besides the theoretical importance, some basic applications, such as the robust deep subwavelength wide bandwidth high-transmission layered structures, the subwavelength wide bandwidth absorbers, and the cavity from the topological subwavelength edge state are proposed, which can inspire new designs in many areas of optics, microwaves, and acoustics. This work opens a new window for rich topological physics and revolutionary device designs at the near and beyond zero-frequency regimes.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 18, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002024 (2021)
Optical and Photonic Materials
Dye-sensitized Er3+-doped CaF2 nanoparticles for enhanced near-infrared emission at 1.5 μm
Jing Liu, Flavia Artizzu, Min Zeng, Luca Pilia, Pieter Geiregat, and Rik Van Deun
Lanthanide (Ln)-doped nanoparticles have shown potential for applications in various fields. However, the weak and narrow absorption bands of the Ln ions (Ln3+), hamper efficient optical pumping and severely limit the emission intensity. Dye sensitization is a promising way to boost the near-infrared (NIR) emission of Er3+, hence promoting possible application in optical amplification at 1.5 μm, a region that is much sought after for telecommunication technology. Herein, we introduce the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) organic dye with large absorption cross section as energy donor of small-sized (∼3.6 nm) Er3+-doped CaF2 nanoparticles. FITC molecules on the surface of CaF2 work as antennas to efficiently absorb light, and provide the indirect sensitization of Er3+ boosting its emission. In this paper, we employ photoluminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy, as well as density functional theory calculations, to provide an in-depth investigation of the FITC→Er3+ energy transfer process. We show that an energy transfer efficiency of over 89% is achieved in CaF2:Er3+@FITC nanoparticles resulting in a 28 times enhancement of the Er3+ NIR emission with respect to bare CaF2:Er3+. Through the multidisciplinary approach used in our work, we are able to show that the reason for such high sensitization efficiency stems from the suitable size and geometry of the FITC dye with a localized transition dipole moment at a short distance from the surface of the nanoparticle.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 22, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002037 (2021)
Ultrafast Optics
Controlling the collective radiative decay of molecular ions in strong laser fields
Hongqiang Xie, Hongbin Lei, Guihua Li, Jinping Yao, Qian Zhang, Xiaowei Wang, Jing Zhao, Zhiming Chen, Ya Cheng, and Zengxiu Zhao
Molecular ions, produced via ultrafast ionization, can be quantum emitters with the aid of resonant electronic couplings, which makes them the ideal candidates to study strong-field quantum optics. In this work, we experimentally and numerically investigate the necessary condition for observing a collective emission arising from macroscopic quantum polarization in a population-inverted N2+ gain system, uncovering how the individual ionic emitters proceed into a coherent collection within hundreds of femtoseconds. Our results show that for a relatively high-gain case, the collective emission behaviors can be readily initiated for all the employed triggering pulse area. However, for a low-gain case, the superradiant amplification is quenched since the building time of macroscopic interionic quantum coherence exceeds the dipole dephasing time, in which situation the seed amplification and free induction decay play an essential role. These findings not only clarify the contentious key issue regarding to the amplification mechanism of N2+ lasing but also show the unique characteristics of ultrashort laser-induced amplification in a molecular ion system where both the microscopic and macroscopic quantum coherence might be present.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 22, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002046 (2021)
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications
Single-mode helical Bragg grating waveguide created in a multimode coreless fiber by femtosecond laser direct writing
Jun He, Jia He, Xizhen Xu, Bin Du, Baijie Xu, Changrui Liao, Zhiyong Bai, and Yiping Wang
We demonstrate the fabrication of single-mode helical Bragg grating waveguides (HBGWs) in a multimode coreless fiber by using a femtosecond laser direct writing technique. This approach provides a single-step method for creating Bragg grating waveguides. Specifically, the unique helical structure in such an HBGW serves as a depressed cladding waveguide and also generates strong Bragg resonance due to its periodicity. Effects of pulse energy, helical diameter, and helical pitch used for fabricating HBGWs were studied, and a single-mode HBGW with a narrow bandwidth of 0.43 nm and a Bragg wavelength of 1546.50 nm was achieved by using appropriate parameters, including a diameter of 10 μm and a helical pitch of 1.07 μm. The measured cross-sectional refractive index profile indicates that a depressed cladding waveguide has been created in this single-mode HBGW. Moreover, five single-mode HBGWs with various Bragg wavelengths were successfully fabricated by controlling the helical pitch, and this technique could be used for achieving a wavelength-division-multiplexed HBGW array. Then, the temperature and strain responses of the fabricated single-mode HBGW were tested, exhibiting a temperature sensitivity of 11.65 pm/°C and a strain sensitivity of 1.29 pm/με, respectively. In addition, the thermal stability of the single-mode HBGW was also studied by annealing at a high temperature of 700°C for 15 h. The degeneration of the single-mode waveguide into a multimode waveguide was observed during the isothermal annealing process, and the peak reflection and the Bragg wavelength of the fundamental mode exhibited a decrease of ∼7 dB and a “blue” shift of 0.36 nm. Hence, such a femtosecond laser directly written single-mode HBGW could be used in many applications, such as sapphire fiber sensors, photonic integrated circuits, and monolithic waveguide lasers.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 22, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002052 (2021)
Optical Devices
Dynamically reconfigurable subwavelength optical device for hydrogen sulfide gas sensing
Zhengji Wen, Jialiang Lu, Weiwei Yu, Hao Wu, Hao Xie, Xiaohang Pan, Qianqian Xu, Ziji Zhou, Chong Tan, Dongjie Zhou, Chang Liu, Yan Sun, Ning Dai, and Jiaming Hao
The importance of tunable subwavelength optical devices in modern electromagnetic and photonic systems is indisputable. Herein, a lithography-free, wide-angle, and reconfigurable subwavelength optical device with high tunability operating in the near-infrared regions is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, based on a reversible nanochemistry approach. The reconfigurable subwavelength optical device basically comprises an ultrathin copper oxide (CuO) thin film on an optical thick gold substrate by utilizing the reversible chemical conversion of CuO to sulfides upon exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas. Proof-of-concept experimental results show that the maximal modulation depth of reflectance can be as high as 90% at the wavelength of 1.79 μm with the initial thickness of CuO taken as 150 nm. Partially reflected wave calculations combined with the transfer matrix method are employed to analytically investigate the optical properties of the structure, which show good agreement with experimental results. We believe that the proposed versatile approaches can be implemented for dynamic control management, allowing applications in tunable photonics, active displays, optical encryption, and gas sensing.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Sep. 22, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002060 (2021)
Silicon Photonics
Silicon photonics phase and intensity modulators for flat frequency comb generation
Lucas Deniel, Erwan Weckenmann, Diego Pérez Galacho, Christian Lafforgue, Stéphane Monfray, Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Laurent Bramerie, Frédéric Boeuf, Laurent Viven, and Delphine Marris-Morini
Flat electro-optical frequency combs play an important role in a wide range of applications, such as metrology, spectroscopy, or microwave photonics. As a key technology for the integration of optical circuits, silicon photonics could benefit from on-chip, tunable, flat frequency comb generators. In this article, two different architectures based on silicon modulators are studied for this purpose. They rely on a time to frequency conversion principle to shape the comb envelope. Using a numerical model of the silicon traveling-wave phase modulators, their driving schemes are optimized before their performances are simulated and compared. A total of nine lines could be obtained within a 2 dB flatness, with a line-spacing ranging from 0.1 to 7 GHz. Since this tunability is a major asset of electro-optical frequency combs, the effect of segmenting the phase modulators is finally investigated, showing that the flat lines spacing could be extended up to 39 GHz by this method.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 18, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002068 (2021)
Optical Devices
Highly efficient achromatic subdiffraction focusing lens in the near field with large numerical aperture
Jin Chen, Hongchen Chu, Yun Lai, Huanyang Chen, Weili Song, Mingji Chen, and Daining Fang
The achromatic subdiffraction lens with large numerical aperture (NA) is of significant importance in optical imaging, photolithography, spectroscopy, and nanophotonics. However, most of the previous research on subdiffraction lenses has been restricted by limited bandwidth and efficiency as well as severe chromatic aberrations. In this paper, a semicircular gradient index lens (sGRIN) with a modified refractive index profile originated from a Maxwell fish-eye lens is put forward to achieve highly efficient (above 81%) achromatic (4–20 GHz) subdiffraction focusing at the focusing line (around 0.28λ) with large NA of 1.3 and broadband diffraction-limited far-field radiation (4–16 GHz) theoretically, which overcomes the drawbacks of previous works. The presented lens is designed by gradient dielectric metamaterials. Evanescent waves ignited at the lens/air interface and transformation of electromagnetic (EM) waves with high spatial frequency in sGRIN to EM waves with low spatial frequency in air are responsible for subdiffraction focusing and diffraction-limited far-field radiation, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate the excellent performance of achromatic subdiffraction focusing and diffraction-limited far-field radiation. The presented lens has great potential to be applied in subdiffraction imaging systems.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 18, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002088 (2021)
Ultra-compact, high-numerical-aperture achromatic multilevel diffractive lens via metaheuristic approach
Bumın K. Yildırım, Hamza Kurt, and Mirbek Turduev
Recently, multilevel diffractive lenses (MDLs) have attracted considerable attention, mainly due to their superior wave-focusing performance; however, efforts to reduce chromatic aberration are still ongoing. Here, we present a numerical design and experimentally demonstrate a high-numerical aperture (∼0.99), diffraction-limited achromatic multilevel diffractive lens (AMDL), operating in the microwave range of 10–14 GHz. A multi-objective differential evolution (MO-DE) algorithm was incorporated with the three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference time-domain method to optimize the heights and widths of each concentric ring (zone) of the AMDL structure. To the best of our knowledge for the first time, in this study, the desired focal distance was also treated as an optimization parameter in addition to the structural parameters of the zones. Thus, MO-DE diminishes the necessity of predetermined focal distance and center wavelength by also providing an alternative method for phase profile tailoring. The proposed AMDL can be considered an ultra-compact and flat lens since it has the radius of 3.7λc and a thickness of ∼λc, where λc is the center wavelength of 24.98 mm (i.e., 12 GHz). The numerically calculated full width at half maximum values are 0.554λ and focusing efficiency values are varying between 28% and 45.5%. To experimentally demonstrate the functionality of the optimized lens, the AMDL composed of polylactic acid material polymer is fabricated via 3D-printing technology. The numerical and experimental results are compared, discussed in detail, and observed to be in good agreement. Moreover, the verified AMDL in the microwave regime is scaled down to the visible wavelengths to observe achromatic and diffraction-limited focusing behavior between 380 and 620 nm wavelengths.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 18, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002095 (2021)
Nanophotonics and Photonic Crystals
Reconfigurable metasurface-based 1 × 2 waveguide switch
Amged Alquliah, Mohamed Elkabbash, Jinluo Cheng, Gopal Verma, Chaudry Sajed Saraj, Wei Li, and Chunlei Guo
Reconfigurable nanophotonic components are essential elements in realizing complex and highly integrated photonic circuits. Here we report a novel concept for devices with functionality to dynamically control guided light in the near-visible spectral range, which is illustrated by a reconfigurable and non-volatile (1×2) switch using an ultracompact active metasurface. The switch is made of two sets of nanorod arrays of TiO2 and antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3), a low-loss phase-change material (PCM), patterned on a silicon nitride waveguide. The metasurface creates an effective multimode interferometer that forms an image of the input mode at the end of the stem waveguide and routes this image toward one of the output ports depending on the phase of PCM nanorods. Remarkably, our metasurface-based 1×2 switch enjoys an ultracompact coupling length of 5.5 μm and a record high bandwidth (22.6 THz) compared to other PCM-based switches. Furthermore, our device exhibits low losses in the near-visible region (∼1 dB) and low cross talk (-11.24 dB) over a wide bandwidth (22.6 THz). Our proposed device paves the way toward realizing compact and efficient waveguide routers and switches for applications in quantum computing, neuromorphic photonic networking, and biomedical sensing and optogenetics.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 18, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002104 (2021)
Physical Optics
Orbital angular momentum mode logical operation using optical diffractive neural network
Peipei Wang, Wenjie Xiong, Zebin Huang, Yanliang He, Zhiqiang Xie, Junmin Liu, Huapeng Ye, Ying Li, Dianyuan Fan, and Shuqing Chen
Optical logical operations demonstrate the key role of optical digital computing, which can perform general-purpose calculations and possess fast processing speed, low crosstalk, and high throughput. The logic states usually refer to linear momentums that are distinguished by intensity distributions, which blur the discrimination boundary and limit its sustainable applications. Here, we introduce orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode logical operations performed by optical diffractive neural networks (ODNNs). Using the OAM mode as a logic state not only can improve the parallel processing ability but also enhance the logic distinction and robustness of logical gates owing to the mode infinity and orthogonality. ODNN combining scalar diffraction theory and deep learning technology is designed to independently manipulate the mode and spatial position of multiple OAM modes, which allows for complex multilight modulation functions to respond to logic inputs. We show that few-layer ODNNs successfully implement the logical operations of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, and NOR in simulations. The logic units of XNOR and XOR are obtained by cascading the basic logical gates of AND, OR, and NOT, which can further constitute logical half-adder gates. Our demonstrations may provide a new avenue for optical logical operations and are expected to promote the practical application of optical digital computing.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 18, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002116 (2021)
Surface Optics and Plasmonics
Structured vortices generated by metasurface holography
Zhen Mou, Changda Zhou, Peiyao Lu, Qingyang Yue, Shuyun Wang, and Shuyun Teng
Highly customized and miniaturized structured light is expected in many application fields. A kind of structured vortex generators is proposed based on a metasurface consisting of rectangular nanoholes etched in a silver film, and the generated vortices with the same or different topological charges are distributed along the radial direction. The geometric metasurface is completed with the help of optical holography technology, and the structured vortex generator possesses high working efficiency and large information capacity. The proposed vortex generators work under circularly polarized light illumination, and the reproduced vortices of multiplexing vortex generator depend on the handedness of the circularly polarized light. This work paves a way to generate new structured light fields. The radially distributed vortices may be utilized to simultaneously screen or separate microparticles. The compact design of the structured vortex generator and the convenient switch of different structured vortices will be a benefit to expand the applications of structured vortex fields.
Photonics Research
  • Publication Date: Oct. 18, 2021
  • Vol.9 Issue, 10 10002125 (2021)